Muwaalaat and Tawalli
“Tawalli to the kuffar is major kufr (kufr akbar), and there is no Tafsil in it. And it is of four types:
1) Loving (Mahabbah) the kuffar because of their religion.
Like the one who loves the people of Democracy for the sake of Democracy, and loves the legislating parliamentarians, and loves the modernists and the nationalists and the likes of them, due to their goals and their beliefs. So this one is a kaafir with the kufr of Tawalli.
He (Most High) said,
“O you who believe! Do not take the Jews and Christians as Awliya’. They are but Awliya’ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them as Awliya’, then surely he is one of them.” [Al-Ma’idah: 51]
Because from the meanings of “Wali” is “Muhibb” (one who likes, loves); This was said by Ibn Al-Athar in “An-Nihayah” (5/228).
2) Tawalli through aid (Nusrah) and assistance (I’anah).
So whosoever assists the kuffar against the Muslims: Muthaaharah (Assisting the kuffar against the Muslims), then he is a kaafir, murtadd. Like those who help the Christians and Jews against the Muslims.
He (Most High) said,
“O you who believe! Do not take the Jews and Christians as Awliya’. They are but Awliya’ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them as Awliya’, then surely he is one of them.” [Al-M?’idah: 51]
3) Tawalli through alliance (Tahaluf).
So whosoever allies himself with the kuffar, and contracts an alliance to support them- even if the support does not actually take place- but he promises it, as well as to back them up, and he forms a contract and a pledge upon that – (then it is as) He (Most High) said,
“Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their brothers (Ikhwaan), those who have disbelieved, among the people of the Scripture: (By Allaah) If you are expelled, we too indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey anyone against you; and if you are attacked (fought), we shall indeed help you.” [Al-Hashr: 11]
And this pledge was given by the hypocrites to some of the Jews in Madinah.
And Al-Qaasim Ibn Salaam said in “Al-Gharib” (3/142), “And the Halif (one who pledges loyalty) is (also) called a Wali.” And Ibn Al-Athar said (similar words) in “An-Nihayah” (5/228).
4) Tawalli through agreement (Muwaafaqah).
Like those who make Democracy as a way of ruling, just like the kuffar; or makes parliaments, just like them; or legislative councils, or committees, or organizations; just like the actions of the kuffar- then this one has made Tawalli to them.
And each of these four types of Tawalli, is kufr within itself (expels from the fold of Islaam), it does not matter what the person believes, unlike what is said by the People of Irja’.
As for Muwaalaat (and this is more wide-ranging than Tawalli), then it is of two types:
1) A type that is called Tawalli; and it is the types that we have mentioned previously.
And sometimes it is termed, “Al-Muwaalaat Al-Kubraa” (The Major Muwaalaah), or “Al-‘Uthma” (The Greater Muwaalaah), or “Al-‘Ammah” (The General Muwaalaah), or “Al-Mutlaqah” (The Absolute Muwaalaah) – and all these are synonymous to meaning of Tawalli.
2) The Minor or Restricted Muwaalaah.
And it is everything that glorifies the kuffar; from honouring them, or letting them sit in front in the assemblies; or taking them as employees (instead of Muslims), and such things. So this is a disobedience and from the kabaa’ir sins (major sins).
He (Most High) said,
“O you who believe! Do not take My enemies and your enemies as Awliya’, showing affection towards them.” [Al-Mumtahinah: 1]
So He labeled “showing affection” as Muwaalaat – and He did not declare them kuffar due to it, rather He addressed them with the label of Imaan.
And these Verses ( Al-Ma’idah: 51) were clarified by ‘Umar, about taking a Christian as a scribe, when he rebuked Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari.
the Hadeeth narrated by Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari, “I said to ‘Umar, “I have a scribe who is Christian.” ‘Umar replied, “What is (wrong) with you? May Allaah curse you (Qaatalak Allaah)! Have you not heard Allaah saying “O you who believe! Do not take the Jews and Christians as Awliya’. They are but Awliya’ of each other. And if any amongst you takes them as Awliya’, then surely he is one of them.” Why do you not take a Hanif (Muslim)?” Ab? M?s? then said, “O Commander of the Mu’minun! I only need him to write (for me), and his religion is his (i.e. none of my business).” So ‘Umar replied, “Allaah has given them disgrace, so I do not respect them. I do not give them dignity, since it is Allaah that has humiliated them. I do not bring them close (to me), since it is Allaah that has removed them to the furthest limit (from us).” Narrated by Ibn Taymiya, and classified as “Sahih” by him also, on the authority of Imaam Ahmad, in “Iqtidha’ As-Sirat Al-Mustaqim” (50), and Al-Bayhaqi in “As-Sunan Al-Kubra” (10/127).