Archive for the ‘Taqlid’ Category

Many Scholars Are Astray and Misguide Others

Posted: June 2, 2012 by millatibraheem in al-Imaan, History, Taqlid

Authubillaahi min ash-Shaytaani rajeem

Bismillaahi ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem, as-Salaatu was-Salaam ‘ala Rasulullaah

Allaah aza wa jal says:

يا أيها الذين آمنوا إن كثيرا من الأحبار والرهبان ليأكلون أموال الناس بالباطل ويصدون عن سبيل الله

O you who have believed, indeed many (katheer) of the scholars and the monks devour the wealth of people unjustly and avert from the way of Allaah…

Collected in the Saheehayn, from Abu Sa’id al-Khudri who said Allaah’s Messenger (s) said:

لَتَتْبَعُنَّ سَنَنَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ شِبْرًا شِبْرًا وَذِرَاعًا بِذِرَاعٍ، حَتَّى لَوْ دَخَلُوا جُحْرَ ضَبٍّ تَبِعْتُمُوهُمْ

“You will follow the ways of those who were before you, span by span and cubit by cubit so much so that even if they entered a hole of a lizard, you would follow them.”

Fallacy of Blindly Following a Knowledgable Person

Posted: June 16, 2011 by millatibraheem in Taqlid

Bismillaah, as-Salaatu was-Salaam ‘ala Rasoolullaah

This argument is called “Argument from Authority” or “Appeal to Authority.” This is a fallacy of defective induction, where it is argued that a statement is correct because the statement is made by a person or source that is commonly regarded as authoritative.  This is a fallacy because the truth or falsity of a claim is not related to the authority of the claimant.

Islaam does not advocate blind following of any individual other then Rasoolullaah, there’s no Sharee evidence to promote such an unhealthy habit and to give sole authority to an individual.

Allaah says, to the nearest of meanings:

“Say, “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger; but if you turn away – then upon him is only that [duty] with which he has been charged, and upon you is that with which you have been charged. And if you obey him, you will be [rightly] guided. And there is not upon the Messenger except the [responsibility for] clear notification” [an-Noor 24:54]


Imaam ibn Hazm on Taqlid

Posted: October 5, 2008 by millatibraheem in Taqlid

Imaam Abu Muhammad bin Hazm stated in ‘al-Muhallaa bil Athaar’, vol 1:

– مسألة – ولا يحل لا حد أن يقلد أحدا لا حيا ولا ميتا وعلى كل أحد من الاجتهاد حسب طاقته، فمن سأل عن دينه فانما يريد معرفة ما ألزمه الله عزوجل في هذا الدين، ففرض عليه إن كان أجهل البرية أن يسأل عن أعلم أهل موضعه بالدين الذى جاء به رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإذا دل عليه سأله، فإذا أفتاه قال له: هكذا قال الله عزوجل ورسوله؟ فان قال له نعم أخذ بذلك وعمل به أبدا، وان قال له هذا رأيى أو هذا قياس أو هذا قول فلان وذكر له صاحبا أو تابعا أو فقيها قديما أو حديثا أو سكت أو انتهره أو قال له لا أدرى، فلا يحل له أن يأخذ بقوله ولكنه يسأل غيره
برهان ذلك قول الله عزوجل (أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول وأولى الامر منكم) فلم يأمرنا عزوجل قط بطاعة بعض أولي الامر، فمن قلد عالما أو جماعة علماء فلم يطع الله تعالى ولا رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا أولى الامر، وإذا لم يرد إلى من ذكرنا فقد خالف أمر الله عزوجل ولم يأمر الله عزوجل قط بطاعة بعض اولي الامر دون بعض

Issue: It is not permissible for anyone to make taqlid of any other person, dead or alive. Everyone must exercise ijtihad according to his ability. So the one who asks about his religion, he only intends to know what Allaah had obligated upon him in this religion. So it is obligatory upon him, (even) if he is the most ignorant of all creation, to ask the most knowledgeable scholar in his locality, the most knowledgeable in terms of the religion that the Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam brought. If he is told about this scholar, he should ask him, and then when he gives him a verdict, he should ask him “Is this what Allaah and His Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam said?”. If he says yes, he should accept it and act upon it always. But if he (the scholar) says “This is my personal opinion or analogy i drew upon or that this is the saying of so-and-so and names a Companion or a Follower or a Faqih, old or new or remains silent or scolds him or says i dont know”, then he should not take his verdict, but ask someone else.

The evidence for this is the saying of Allaah “Obey Allaah and His Messenger and the Ulu ul-Amr among you”, so Allaah did not tell us to obey (only) specific scholars (to the exception of all others), so he who makes taqlid of some (specific) scholar or a (specific) group of scholars, then he neither obeys Allaah nor his Messenger sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam nor the Ulu al-Amr. So if he does not do that, he has disobeyed Allaah, because Allaah never Commanded to obey some scholars to the exclusion of other scholars.

Imaam Ibn Hazm further writes:

فان قيل: فان الله عزوجل قال (فاسألوا أهل الذكر ان كنتم لا تعلمون) وقال تعالى: (ليتفقهوا في الدين ولينذروا قومهم).
قلنا: نعم ولم يأمر الله عزوجل أن يقبل
من النافر للتفقه في الدين رأيه، ولا أن يطاع أهل الذكر في رأيهم ولا في دين يشرعونه لم يأذن به الله عزوجل وانما أمر تعالى بأن يسأل أهل الذكر عما يعلمونه في الذكر الوارد من عند الله تعالى فقط لا عمن قاله من لا سمع له ولا طاعة، وانما أمر الله تعالى بقبول نذارة النافر للتفقه في الدين فيما تفقه فيه من دين الله تعالى الذي أتى به رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا في دين لم يشرعه الله عزوجل، ومن ادعى وجوب تقليد العامي للمفتي فقد ادعى الباطل وقال قولا لم يأت به قط نص قرآن ولا سنة ولا اجماع ولا قياس، وما كان هكذا فهو باطل لانه قول بلا دليل، بل البرهان قد جاء بابطاله، قال تعالى ذاما لقوم قالوا (انا أطعنا سادتنا وكبراءنا فأضلونا السبيلا) والاجتهاد انما معناه بلوغ الجهد في طلب دين الله عزوجل الذى أوجبه على عباده، وبالضرورة يدرى كل ذى حس سليم أن المسلم لا يكون مسلما إلا حتى يقر بأن الله تعالى الهه لا إله غيره وأن محمدا هو رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وسلم بهذا الدين إليه والى غيره، فإذ لا شك في هذا فكل سائل في الارض عن نازلة في دينه فانما يسأل عما حكم الله تعالى به في هذه النازلة، فإذ لا شك في هذا ففرض عليه أن يسأل إذا سمع فتيا: أهذا حكم الله وحكم رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم؟ وهذا لا يعجز عنه من يدرى ما الاسلام ولو أنه كما جلب من قوقوا وبالله تعالى التوفيق

If it is said (in defense of taqlid) that Allaah Said “ ask the people of the Reminder if you do not know.” (Al-Anbiya 21:7) and that “Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may get instructions in religion, and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware (of evil).” (At-Tawbah 9:122)”

Then we say: Yes indeed, but Allaah did not Command that we should accept the (baseless) opinions of the party who were instructed in Islamic religion (9:122) because they have understanding of Allaah’s religion and neither that the people of Remembrance (21:7) should be obeyed obeyed in their opinions or legislation they carve out that Allaah Did not Command (excuse his sharp tongue). Allaah only Commanded that the Ahl Al-Dhikr (21:7) should be asked about the Dhikr they know of that has come to them from Allaah only, not about what so-and-so, whom we are not ordered to hear and obey, said. Similarly Allaah only Commanded that the warning of the party who were instructed in religion (9:122) , because of their understanding of Deen, should be accepted in matters they understood from Allaah’s religion that was brought by the Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallm, not in the religion that was not Legislated by Allaah.

So he who claims that it is waajib for the layman to make taqlid of the mufti, then he has claimed falsehood, and uttered something of which is not proven by anything in the Qur’aan, Hadith, Ijma’  or Qiyas (analogy between two similar matters). So something which is like that is void, since it is a saying without evidence. Infact the evidence points to its invalidity, as Allaah condemned those who will say : “Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the (Right) Way.” (Al-Ahzab 33:67) “.

So, Ijtihaad means to try one’s utmost to seek Allaah’s religion that he made obligatory on all His slaves. Anyone one with sound senses knows instinctively and naturally that a Muslim cannot be a Muslim except that he affirms that Allaah his his Deity and none is to be worshiped except Him and that Muhammad sallAllaaho;alahiwasallam is the one He Sent with His religion to everyone. So if there is no doubt in that, then whoever on earth is faced with a new religious issue actually asks about Allaah’s Commandment in that matter. So if there is no doubt in that, then it is obligatory upon him to ask when he hears the (verdict of the) mufti : “Is this Allaah and His Messenger’s Commandment?” This is what anyone who knows about Islam is capable of doing , even ( if he is totally ignorant). And Allaah is the Source to do good…

‘al-Ihkaam fi al-Ahkaam’:
وإنما التقليد الذي نخالفهم فيه أخذ قول رجل ممن دون النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، لم يأمرنا ربنا باتباعه، بلا دليل يصحح قوله، لكن فلانا قاله فقط

The taqlid that we oppose them in is “To accept the saying of a person other than the Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam, whom Allaah did not Command us to obey, such that there is no evidence to support that saying of his, except that (this person uses as ‘evidence’ that ) so-and-so said this”

فإن قال قائل: فكيف يصنع العامي إذا نزلت به النازلة ؟
قال أبو محمد: فالجواب وبالله تعالى التوفيق: إنا قد بينا تحريم الله تعالى للتقليد جملة، ولم يخص الله تعالى بذلك عاميا من عالم، ولا عالما من عامي، وخطاب الله تعالى متوجه إلى كل أحد، فالتقليد حرام على العبد المجلوب من بلده، والعامي، والعذراء المخدرة، والراعي في شعف الجبال، كما هو حرام على العالم المتبحر ولا فرق، والاجتهاد في طلب حكم الله تعالى ورسوله، في كل ما خص
المرء من دينه، لازم لكل من ذكرنا، كلزومه للعالم المتبحر ولا فرق، فمن قلد من كل من ذكرنا فقد عصى الله عزوجل، وأثم ولكن يختلفون في كيفية الاجتهاد فلا يلزم المرء منه إلا مقدار ما يستطيع عليه، لقوله تعالى: * (لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها) * ولقوله تعالى: * (فاتقوا الله ما استطعتم) * والتقوى كله هو العمل في الدين بما أوجبه الله تعالى فيه، ولم يكلفنا تعالى منه إلا ما نستطيع فقط، ويسقط عنا ما لا نستطيع، وهذا نص جلي على أنه لا يلزم أحدا من البحث على ما نزل به في الديانة إلا بقدر ما يستطيع فقط، فعلى كل أحد حظه من الاجتهاد

If it is said: what should a layman do in case of a new religious issue?

The answer is: We already explained that Allaah forbade Taqlid completely, without differentiating the scholar from the layman… and Ijtihad (struggling one’s utmost) in seeking Allaah and His Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam’s command in all that regards a person’s religion is an obligation on every one too, upon the learned scholar and the layman without any distinction…but they differ in the way they perform their Ijtihad, as a person is only obligated to do what he can do within his abilities, as Allaah said: “Allaah Does Not Enburden anyone except upto his capacity” and “Fear Allaah as much as you can”, and fearing Allaah (taqwah) means to act upon what Allaah Requires him to from the religion , and Allaah Does Not Require us to do anything from the religion except that which we are able to do.. Hence what we are not able to do becomes inapplicable to us. So this is clear evidence that no one is required to search for what the religion’s commandment, except what he is able to. So every person has his share of Ijtihad

فاجتهاد العامي إذا سأل العالم على أمور دينه فأفتاه أن يقول له: هكذا أمر الله ورسوله ؟ فإن قال له: نعم، أخذ بقوله، ولم يلزمه أكثر من هذا البحث، وإن قال له: لا، أو قال له: هذا قولي، أو قال له: هذا قول مالك أو ابن القاسم أو أبي حنيفة أو أبي يوسف أو الشافعي أو أحمد أو داود أو سمى له أحد من صاحب أو تابع فمن دونهما غير النبي ، أو انتهزه أو سكت عنه: فحرام على السائل أن يأخذ بفتياه، وفرض عليه أن يسأل غيره من العلماء وأن يطلبه حيث كان، إذ إنما يسأل المسلم من سأل من العلماء عن نازلة تنزل به ليخبره بحكم الله تعالى وحكم محمد في ذلك، وما يجب في
دين الاسلام في تلك المسألة، ولو علم أنه يفتيه بغير ذلك لتبرأ منه وهرب عنه
وفرض على الفقيه إذا علم أن الذي أفتاه به هو في نص القرآن والسنة عن رسول الله أو الاجماع أن يقول له: نعم، هكذا أمر الله تعالى رسوله ، وحرام عليه أن ينسب إلى الله تعالى وإلى رسوله شيئا، قاله بقياس أو استحسان أو تقليد لاحد دون النبي ، فإنه إن فعل ذلك كان بذلك كاذبا على رسوله عليه السلام، ومقولا له ما لم يقل، وقد وجبت له النار
يقينا، بنص قوله: من كذب علي فليلج النار وهذا الذي قلنا لا يعجز عنه واحد وإن بلغ الغاية في جهله، لانه لا يكون أحد من الناس مسلما حتى يعلم أن الله تعالى ربه، وأن النبي عليه السلام، وهو محمد بن عبد الله، رسول الله بالدين القيم

So the layman’s Ijtihad is that when he asks a scholar about religious issues and the scholar gives him a verdict, then he should ask that scholar: ‘Is this how Allaah and His Messenger rules (in this matter)?’. If the scholar says, ‘Yes’, then the layman is not required to look any further and should act upon it. But if the scholar says ‘no’, or ‘this is my opinion’ or ‘this is the saying of Malik or Ibn Al-Qasim or Abu Hanifa or Abu Yusuf or Shafa’ie or Ahmad or Dawood or so-and-so Companion or Follower or anyone below them other than the Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallm’ or remains quiet or scolds him off, then it is impermissible for him to accept his verdicts. It is obligatory upon him to ask some other scholar and to seek him out wherever he may be. Because the Muslim ,when faced with a religious issue he did not face before and asks a scholar, then he only(intends to) ask the scholar about what Allaah and His Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam commanded in this situation and what Islam obligates in this situation. If the questioner gets to know that the scholar’s verdict is not based on that, that he should absolve himself from this scholar and run away from him!

And it is obligatory upon the scholar that if he knows that the verdict he gave this layman is based upon the Qur’aan and Sunnah or scholarly cocencus, then he should say ‘Yes’. And it is impermissible for him to ascribe anything to Allaah or His Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam, if what he based his verdict upon was analogy (Qiyas) or istihsaan or taqleed of anyone except taqlied of the Prophet sallAllaaho’alaihiwasallam…