Archive for the ‘Ulum ul Hadeeth’ Category

Then stay with her, for Paradise is beneath her feet

 

From Sunan an-Nasai with full Isnaad:

 

أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَهَّابِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْحَكَمِ الْوَرَّاقُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ طَلْحَةَ، – وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ – عَنْ أَبِيهِ، طَلْحَةَ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ جَاهِمَةَ السُّلَمِيِّ، أَنَّ جَاهِمَةَ، جَاءَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَغْزُوَ وَقَدْ جِئْتُ أَسْتَشِيرُكَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏”‏ هَلْ لَكَ مِنْ أُمٍّ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ فَالْزَمْهَا فَإِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ تَحْتَ رِجْلَيْهَا ‏

 

It was narrated from Mu’awiyah bin Jahimah As-Sulami, that Jahimah came to the Prophet and said:

“O Messenger of Allah! I want to go out and fight and I have come to ask your advice.” He said: “Do you have a mother?” He said: “Yes.” He said: “Then stay with her, for Paradise is beneath her feet.”

 

There are two problems wthin the isnaad of this particular hadith: 1) Ambiguity in transmission, and 2) lack of trustiness of one of the narrators.

 

1) The ambiguous transmission from حَجَّاجٌ “An”  ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ and from مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ طَلْحَةَ “An” أَبِيهِ، طَلْحَةَ  “An”  مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ جَاهِمَةَ السَّلَمِيّ.  Neither of these narrators clearly stated whether they heard, or were told, this hadith from their source.  Whether some of them were reliabel or not is irrelevant, since the actual state of receiving is in question.

 

2) طلحة is also an issue.  His full name was طلحة بن عبد الله بن عبد الرحمن بن عبد الله بن عثمان and he did not report many narrations.  His acceptability is not established by anyone who interacted with him.  No major imam mentioned him to be upright and reliable.

 

 

Paradise is at the feet of mothers

 

These words are supposedly reported by two companions – Anas b. Malik and Abdullah b. Abbas.

 

From al-Jami of al-Khatib with full Isnaad:

 

 أَنَا الْحَسيَنُ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ، أَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ الْقَطَّانُ، نَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْوَاسِطِيُّ، نَا مَنْصُورُ بْنُ الْمُهَاجِرِ الْبُزُورِيُّ، نَا أَبُو النَّضْرِ الأَبَّارُ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ : “ الْجَنَّةُ تَحْتَ أَقْدَامِ الأُمَّهَاتِ 

 

From Anas b. Malik, Allah’s Messenger said : “Paradise is at the feet of mothers.”

 

There are two narrators who are a major problem: مَنْصُورُ بْنُ الْمُهَاجِرِ الْبُزُورِيُّ  and أَبُو النَّضْرِ الأَبَّارُ, both of these men are unknown. (ref. al-Ajluni)

 

 

From al-Kaamil of Ibn Adiy with full Isnaad:

 

ثنا عُمَرُ بْنُ سِنَانٍ، ثنا عَبَّاسُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ الْخَلالُ، ثنا مُوسَى بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَطَاءٍ، ثنا أَبُو الْمُلَيْحِ، عَنْ مَيْمُونَ بْنِ مَهْرَانَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ K: ” الْجَنَّةُ تَحْتَ أَقْدَامِ الأُمَّهَاتِ مَنْ شِئْنَ أَدْخَلْنَ وَمَنْ شِئْنَ أَخْرَجْنَ 

 

From Ibn Abbas who said, Allah’s Messenger said: “Paradise is at the feet of mothers, from there we are admitted and saved.”

 

Ibn Adiy comments: “وهذا حديث منكر أيضا This hadith is munkar” and al-Khatib also collected this hadith and said it was “weak.”

 

Once again, there are two problems wthin the isnaad of this particular hadith: 1) Ambiguity in transmission, and 2) abandonment of one of the narrators.

 

1) The ambiguity of narrating this hadith by أَبُو الْمُلَيْحِ “An” مَيْمُونَ بْنِ مَهْرَانَ “An” ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ

 

2) The narrator  مُوسَى بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَطَاءٍ was declared as “Matruk” by ad-Daraqutni and accused of lying (ref. Abu Hatim ar-Razi).

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Let’s start with the famous smart quote from Ibn Hazm that represents the foundation of whatever is being developed after, both on the matter of jurisprudence or creeds:

“I looked up all the arguments that Shafi’i used to deny Istihsaan and I’ve found them useful to deny Qiyas also”
Well, what are they left with as a sunni sub group is Qur’an and “Sunnah”, but what’s sunnah?
Here, hadeeth comes along as the biggest, if not the only, source of sunnah with all its classes, grading, and various sources, with an estimated one million narrations, and a mighty arsenal of 1,400 books or more, and an army of over 50,000 narrators. What is the way to know what’s sunnah and whats not, a chain of questions pop up in ones mind (if the intellect is even being used)…
Did the Prophet really say this? Was it for all Muslims? Was it for a specific case? Am I included here? etc.
In defense of hadeeth, the infamous man-made remedy appears as the savior, the “science” of hadeeth. The “science”? Let’s look it up.

– If a critique is agreed upon, it’s not debatable to propose another criteria for that narrator even if the path of his narrations propose otherwise.

– If some ahadeeth are contradicted, we simply follow the conclusion of a muhaddith who attacked the issue; if muhadditheen disagree about it at one point, we see a closer generation and hope that one solved the issue.
– The categorization of “hassan,” is a cloud of thousands of narrations that can be used or not depending on…what you want.  It is a free-zone.
– If two narrators lived in the same city and coexisted for some time, than surely they met each other.
– If two narrators contradicted one another we choose the narration of the one with “better creed.”
….
So isn’t hadeeth science a mix of qiyas , istihsaan, and taqleed after all. What makes you better or closer to the truth than any hanafi or maliki? After all, these at least show a more developed legislation structure compared to a “newbie”.

Taraweeh during Ramadhaan is held worldwide in the masaajid.  Despite its popularity and claims of being from the ‘sunnah,’ Muhammad Rasoolullaah never actually sanctioned it.  The evidence against Taraweeh in the masjid is as follows:

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى بْنُ حَمَّادٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا وُهَيْبٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ عُقْبَةَ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ أَبِي النَّضْرِ، عَنْ بُسْرِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم اتَّخَذَ حُجْرَةً ـ قَالَ حَسِبْتُ أَنَّهُ قَالَ ـ مِنْ حَصِيرٍ فِي رَمَضَانَ فَصَلَّى فِيهَا لَيَالِيَ، فَصَلَّى بِصَلاَتِهِ نَاسٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ، فَلَمَّا عَلِمَ بِهِمْ جَعَلَ يَقْعُدُ، فَخَرَجَ إِلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ قَدْ عَرَفْتُ الَّذِي رَأَيْتُ مِنْ صَنِيعِكُمْ، فَصَلُّوا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فِي بُيُوتِكُمْ، فَإِنَّ أَفْضَلَ الصَّلاَةِ صَلاَةُ الْمَرْءِ فِي بَيْتِهِ إِلاَّ الْمَكْتُوبَةَ ‏”‏‏.‏ قَالَ عَفَّانُ حَدَّثَنَا وُهَيْبٌ، حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى، سَمِعْتُ أَبَا النَّضْرِ، عَنْ بُسْرٍ، عَنْ زَيْدٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ

Narrated Zaid bin Thabit:

Allah’s Messenger made a small room in the month of Ramadan (Sa’id said, “I think that Zaid bin Thabit said that it was made of a mat”) and he prayed there for a few nights, and so some of his companions prayed behind him. When he came to know about it, he kept on sitting. In the morning, he went out to them and said, “I have seen and understood what you did. You should pray in your houses, for the best prayer of a person is that which he prays in his house except the compulsory prayers.”

This narration is recorded in Sahihayn and the books of Sunan.

Allah says there is no compulsion in Deen, the right way is clear from the wrong [2:256] and the truth is from your lord, whoever wills, let him believe and whoever wills, let him disbelieve [18:29].

 

Apostasy is when one abandons or renounces his religious and/or political beliefs and allegiances.

 

Whenever one testifies there’s no god but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s apostle, we assume that he’s Muslim based on his outward deeds.

 

However, there may be times these individuals manifest disbelief through their deeds. If he opposes the Rasul after guidance is made clear to him and follows other than the believers’ path, then clearly he’s among those who disbelieve [4:115].

 

Either he never believed or he believed then disbelieved or he’s filled with doubts. The ayat in surah an-nisa 89-91 tell us not to take them as allies until they emigrate in Allah’s path and if they turn away, seize them and kill them but if they restrain their hands against you and offer peace then Allah has not made a way for you against them, only those who have joined the enemy in fighting you should be fought against.

 

There are mainly three narrations which allude to killing apostates:
whoever changes his deen, kill him
the one who comes out against Allah and His Rasul
the one who forsakes Islam and parts the jama’ah (or parts from the jama’ah)

 

The first: whoever changes his deen, kill him
If this were taken generally, then a pagan or a Jew who becomes Christian should be killed.  Even if a Christian or Jew who becomes a Muslim should be killed, following the obvious wording of the narration.  If someone says only Islam is deen, then they are mistaken.  Why?  Because Allah tells the people of the scripture not to exceed the limits of their religion… [4:171], calling their ways ‘deen.’  Therefore, this narration is problematic with the Qur’an.

 

The second: the one who comes out against Allah and His Rasul
The Qur’an has already detailed the punishments for hiraba in surah al-ma’idah, regardless of whether or not it’s done by one who used to say he’s Muslim or one who still claims he’s Muslim.

 

The third: the one who forsakes Islam and parts the jama’ah (or parts from the jama’ah)
By jama’ah, it’s not speaking about the sect that emerged after the Rasul’s passing, calling themselves ‘Ahl us sunna wal jama’ah.  No, rather, the jama’ah is the Muslims and splitting their ranks. But due to the  word “and” in the narration, this individual must be doing both: leaving Islam and splitting the ranks of the believers, causing sectarian strife.  If the other wording is used -or parts from the jama’ah- then it implies he has parted ways with the jama’ah, in which case we apply the ayat in surah an-nisa depending on which camp he’s joined, a neutral party or the enemy…

 

Muhamad bin Muhamad

Thoughts on Accepting Hadiths

Posted: April 8, 2015 by Admin in Ulum ul Hadeeth
Tags: , , ,

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

With Allah’s name, the Ultimate, the Merciful

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

So do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? Had it been from other than Allah, surely they would have found much contradiction in it. [4:82]

وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا

And for their saying, “Indeed, we killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, Allah’s Apostle.” And they did not kill him, nor crucify him; though it had looked that way to them. And indeed, those who differed over it, are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge in it, except following assumption. For, surely they did not kill him. [4:157]

So when an event or practice explicitly opposes the Qur’an, that means either that narration is a forgery or it was a practice which was eventually abolished.

وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُوا كَافَّةً ۚ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ

And it is not for the believers to set out collectively. So, then from among every division among them, let a ta’ifah set out to gain understanding in the religion and warn their people when they return. So that perhaps they might beware. [9:122]

A ta’ifah can be a small group of people or even a single person. But does this necessarily mean that those who were warned are always obliged to believe everything this ta’ifah is relaying to them?

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ

O you who have believed, when a fasiq brings you information, verify, lest you harm a people due to ignorance and become regretful over what you have done. [49:6]

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ ۖ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا ۚ أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O you who have believed, avoid much assumption. Indeed, some assumption is sin. And do not spy nor backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is Accepting, Merciful. [49:12]

This means we always need to verify the narratives of those who are known to lie before accepting and spreading that information. But does that necessarily mean we do not need to verify the narratives of those who are not known to lie?

فَمَا لَكُمْ فِي الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَاللَّهُ أَرْكَسَهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَهْدُوا مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا

What is with you [that you are] two groups concerning the munafiqin, while Allah has made them fall back for what they have earned. Do you wish to guide those whom Allah has sent astray? And whoever Allah sends astray you will never find for him a way. [4:88]

وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَهُمْ تُعْجِبُكَ أَجْسَامُهُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَقُولُوا تَسْمَعْ لِقَوْلِهِمْ ۖ كَأَنَّهُمْ خُشُبٌ مُّسَنَّدَةٌ ۖ يَحْسَبُونَ كُلَّ صَيْحَةٍ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ هُمُ الْعَدُوُّ فَاحْذَرْهُمْ ۚ قَاتَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ أَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ

And when you see them, their forms please you, and if they speak, you listen to their speech. As if they were pieces of wood propped up, they think every shout is against them. They are the enemy, so beware of them. May Allah destroy them; how are they so deluded? [63:4]

It’s also possible that some people may unwittingly accept and convey the narratives of fasiqun while believing them to be trustworthy, unaware of their reality.

وَلَقَدْ عَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ آدَمَ مِن قَبْلُ فَنَسِيَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُ عَزْمًا

And We had already taken a promise from Adam before, but he forgot; and We did not find him to be resolute. [20:115]

وَقَالَ لِلَّذِي ظَنَّ أَنَّهُ نَاجٍ مِّنْهُمَا اذْكُرْنِي عِندَ رَبِّكَ فَأَنسَاهُ الشَّيْطَانُ ذِكْرَ رَبِّهِ فَلَبِثَ فِي السِّجْنِ بِضْعَ سِنِينَ

And he said to the one whom he thought would be saved among the two, “Mention me to your lord.” But Satan had made him forget to mention him to his lord. So he was left in prison, several years. [12:42]

قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ إِذْ أَوَيْنَا إِلَى الصَّخْرَةِ فَإِنِّي نَسِيتُ الْحُوتَ وَمَا أَنسَانِيهُ إِلَّا الشَّيْطَانُ

He said, “Did you see when we retired to the rock? Indeed, I forgot the fish. And none made me forget it except Satan” [18:63]

سَنُقْرِئُكَ فَلَا تَنسَىٰ, إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْجَهْرَ وَمَا يَخْفَىٰ, وَنُيَسِّرُكَ لِلْيُسْرَىٰ, فَذَكِّرْ إِن نَّفَعَتِ الذِّكْرَىٰ

We will make you recite, and you will not forget, except what Allah wills. Indeed, He knows what is declared and what is hidden. And We will ease you toward ease. So remind, if the reminder benefits. [87:6-9]

Therefor all humans have a natural tendency to err so even those who do not intentionally lie may forget, misunderstand or make mistakes when narrating.

وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِن رِّجَالِكُمْ ۖ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ أَن تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَىٰ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ الشُّهَدَاءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُوا ۚ وَلَا تَسْأَمُوا أَن تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَىٰ أَجَلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَادَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوا

And call two witnesses from among your men to testify. And if not two men, then a man and two women from those whose testimony you accept, so if she deviates, the other will remind her. And let the witnesses not refuse when they have been called [to testify]. And do not grow weary, that you write it, whether it is small or large, regarding its term. That is more just with Allah and stronger as testimony and more likely that you not have doubt [2:282]

This shows that having one dictating, while another records what he says in the presence of two witnesses is more just and less doubtful.

Many inauthentic ahadith are circulated about the virtues of one memorizing the Quraan.  Some of the the popular ones will be listed here along with their unreliability.  Only the major hadith books will be used and the untrustworthy narrators will briefly be mentioned.  It is up to the reader to further do research.

First weak hadith:

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ السَّرْحِ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، أَخْبَرَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ زَبَّانَ بْنِ فَائِدٍ، عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ مُعَاذٍ الْجُهَنِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ  قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ قَرَأَ الْقُرْآنَ وَعَمِلَ بِمَا فِيهِ أُلْبِسَ وَالِدَاهُ تَاجًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ضَوْؤُهُ أَحْسَنُ مِنْ ضَوْءِ الشَّمْسِ فِي بُيُوتِ الدُّنْيَا لَوْ كَانَتْ فِيكُمْ فَمَا ظَنُّكُمْ بِالَّذِي عَمِلَ بِهَذَا ‏”

“If anyone recites the Quraan and acts according to its content, on the Day of Judgement his parents will be given to wear a crown whose light is better than the light of the sun in the dwellings of this world if it were among you. So what do you think of him who acts according to this?”
(Sunan Abu Dawud, Musnad Abi Y’ala…)
PROBLEMS:
  • يحيى بن أيوب – He narrated few ahadith and his reliability was not established.  Hence, his reports were taken as secondary evidences. (an-Nisai)  Abu J’afar al-‘Aqeeli mentioned him in his book of weak reporters and Ibn Hazm said he was weak.
  • زبان بن فائد – Ahmad b. Hanbal mentioned him to be from munakeer and Yahya b. Ma’een said he was weak.  Abu J’afar counted him to be from among the weak.
  • سهل بن معاذ الجهني – Yahya b. Ma’een said he was weak.

Second weak hadith:

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، عَنْ كَثِيرِ بْنِ زَاذَانَ، عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ ضَمْرَةَ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  ‏ “‏ مَنْ قَرَأَ الْقُرْآنَ وَاسْتَظْهَرَهُ فَأَحَلَّ حَلاَلَهُ وَحَرَّمَ حَرَامَهُ أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ بِهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَشَفَّعَهُ فِي عَشَرَةٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ كُلُّهُمْ وَجَبَتْ لَهُ النَّارُ ‏”

“Whoever recites the Quraan and memorizes it, making lawful what it makes lawful, and unlawful what it makes unlawful, Allah will admit him to Paradise due to it, and grant him intercession for ten of his family members who were to be consigned to the Fire.”

(at-Tirmidhi & Ibn Maajah, at-Tirmidhi said it’s gharib )

PROBLEMS:

  • حفص بن سليمان – ‘Ali b. al-Madini, Abu Haatim, Abu Zurra, Abu J’afar, and Abu Faraj b. al-Jowzi all said he was weak.  ad-Daraaqutni mentioned him from the weak and rejected, and an-Nisai said he was matrook.
  • كثير بن زاذان – Both Abu Haatim and Abu Zurra said he was unknown.

Third weak hadith:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى، أَنْبَأَنَا شَيْبَانُ، عَنْ فِرَاسٍ، عَنْ عَطِيَّةَ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏ “‏ يُقَالُ لِصَاحِبِ الْقُرْآنِ إِذَا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ اقْرَأْ وَاصْعَدْ ‏.‏ فَيَقْرَأُ وَيَصْعَدُ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ دَرَجَةً حَتَّى يَقْرَأَ آخِرَ شَىْءٍ مَعَهُ ‏”

“It will be said to the companion of the Quraan, when he enters Paradise: ‘Recite and rise one degree for every Verse,’ until he recites the last thing that he knows.”

(Musnad Ahmad b. Hanbal & Sunan Ibn Maajah)

PROBLEMS:

  • عطية بن سعد – Yahya b. Sa’eed al-Qattan, Sufyian ath-Thowri, Ahmad b. Hanbal, an-Nisai, ad-Daraaqutni, and Abu Haatim all said he was weak.

Saying of a Sahaabi is not Proof

Posted: January 29, 2015 by millatibraheem in Bid'ah, Rebuttals, Ulum ul Hadeeth
Tags: ,

There are people who take a saying of a Sahaabi, or companion, of the Prophet as evidence in Deen, even if this saying has no support from Allaah ar-Rahmaan and His revelation.  No doubt this is a dangerous and an abhorrent innovation [Bid’ah dalala] that contradicts what Allaah al-Hakam has commanded us to do:

اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۗ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ

Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow other than Him any Awliya. Little do you remember.

(al-‘A’araf 7:3)

We as Muslims – those who are submissive to Allaah – are required to only follow revelation.  Whatever Allaah al-Wahhab sent down, it is considered as Deen and must be followed.  Anything that was not revealed by Allaah, then it is not Deen and can never be considered as part of it.

Henceforth, even the Prophet himself and some of his  companions were careful in accepting something that was attributed to the Deen.  Here will be discussed a few authentic narrations just to give some light on the topic.  You will see that neither the Prophet, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, nor ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab blindly accepted a saying of a Sahaabi until it was verified.

Narration of the Prophet

Wording from Malik’s Muwatta:

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ بْنِ أَبِي تَمِيمَةَ السَّخْتِيَانِيِّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم انْصَرَفَ مِنَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَقَالَ لَهُ ذُو الْيَدَيْنِ أَقَصُرَتِ الصَّلاَةُ أَمْ نَسِيتَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  ‏“‏ أَصَدَقَ ذُو الْيَدَيْنِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّاسُ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَقَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ  فَصَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ أُخْرَيَيْنِ ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ ثُمَّ كَبَّرَ فَسَجَدَ مِثْلَ سُجُودِهِ أَوْ أَطْوَلَ ثُمَّ رَفَعَ ثُمَّ كَبَّرَ فَسَجَدَ مِثْلَ سُجُودِهِ أَوْ أَطْوَلَ ثُمَّ رَفَعَ

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ayyub ibn Abi Tamima as-Sakhtayani from Muhammad ibn Sirin from Abu Hurayra that:

Allaah’s Messenger finished the prayer after two rakats and Dhul-Yadayn said to him, “Has the prayer been shortened or have you forgotten, O Allaah’s Messenger?”

Allaah’s Messenger said, “Has Dhul-Yadayn spoken the truth?”

The people said, “Yes,” and Allaah’s Messenger stood and prayed the other two rakats and then said, “Peace be upon you.” Then he said, “Allaah is greater” and went into a sadja as long as his usual prostrations or longer. Then he came up and said, “Allaah is greater” and went into a sajda as long as his usual prostrations or longer and then came up.

[It was also collected by Ahmad, al-Bukhaari, Muslim, at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, an-Nisa’i, and Ibn Majah in their books]

There is nothing complex in this hadeeth.  A Sahaabi called Dhul-Yadayn questioned the Prophet in a manner as if the ruling changed or he may have made a mistake.  Hence, Allaah’s Messenger did not just take his word and prayed the rest of the prayer.  The Prophet actually asked other people if Dhul-Yadayn spoke the truth “أَصَدَقَ ذُو الْيَدَيْنِ“.  This by no means implies that Dhul-Yadayn was untrustworthy.

Narration of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

Wording from Malik’s Muwatta:

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ خَرَشَةَ، عَنْ قَبِيصَةَ بْنِ ذُؤَيْبٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ جَاءَتِ الْجَدَّةُ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ تَسْأَلُهُ مِيرَاثَهَا فَقَالَ لَهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ مَا لَكِ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ شَىْءٌ وَمَا عَلِمْتُ لَكِ فِي سُنَّةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ  شَيْئًا فَارْجِعِي حَتَّى أَسْأَلَ النَّاسَ فَسَأَلَ النَّاسَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ الْمُغِيرَةُ بْنُ شُعْبَةَ حَضَرْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ  أَعْطَاهَا السُّدُسَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ هَلْ مَعَكَ غَيْرُكَ فَقَامَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ فَقَالَ مِثْلَ مَا قَالَ الْمُغِيرَةُ فَأَنْفَذَهُ لَهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقُ ثُمَّ جَاءَتِ الْجَدَّةُ الأُخْرَى إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ تَسْأَلُهُ مِيرَاثَهَا فَقَالَ لَهَا مَا لَكِ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ شَىْءٌ وَمَا كَانَ الْقَضَاءُ الَّذِي قُضِيَ بِهِ إِلاَّ لِغَيْرِكِ وَمَا أَنَا بِزَائِدٍ فِي الْفَرَائِضِ شَيْئًا وَلَكِنَّهُ ذَلِكَ السُّدُسُ فَإِنِ اجْتَمَعْتُمَا فَهُوَ بَيْنَكُمَا وَأَيَّتُكُمَا خَلَتْ بِهِ فَهُوَ لَهَا

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Uthman ibn Ishaq ibn Kharasha that Qabisa ibn Dhu’ayb said,

“A grandmother came to Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and asked him for her inheritance. Abu Bakr said to her, ‘You have nothing in the Book of Allaah, and I do not know that you have anything in the sunnah of the Allaah’s Messenger. Go away therefore, until I have questioned the people.’

He questioned the people, and al-Mughira ibn Shuba said, ‘I was present with Allaah’s Messenger when he gave the grandmother a sixth.’

Abu Bakr said, ‘Was there anybody else with you?’

Muhammad ibn Maslama al-Ansari stood up and said the like of what al-Mughira said.  Abu Bakr as-Siddiq gave it to her.

Then the other grandmother came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and asked him for her inheritance. He said to her, “You have nothing in the Book of Allaah, and what has been decided is only for other than you, and I am not one to add to the fixed shares, other than that sixth. If there are two of you together, it is between you. If either of you is left alone with it, it is hers.”

[This narration was also transmitted by at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah in their collections.]

As we can see here, first, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq did not just do whatever he thought was correct, rather he questioned the people about this matter if there was anything coming from the Prophet. When a Sahaabi named al-Mughira stood up and told Abu Bakr as-Siddiq what he saw Allaah’s Messenger doing, Abu Bakr did not blindly accept al-Mughira’s saying, even though al-Mughaira was a trustworthy person.

Narration of Umar bin al-Khattab

Wording from al-Bukhaari:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَلاَمٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَخْلَدُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عَطَاءٌ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا مُوسَى الأَشْعَرِيَّ، اسْتَأْذَنَ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ فَلَمْ يُؤْذَنْ لَهُ، وَكَأَنَّهُ كَانَ مَشْغُولاً فَرَجَعَ أَبُو مُوسَى، فَفَرَغَ عُمَرُ فَقَالَ أَلَمْ أَسْمَعْ صَوْتَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ ائْذَنُوا لَهُ قِيلَ قَدْ رَجَعَ‏.‏ فَدَعَاهُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ كُنَّا نُؤْمَرُ بِذَلِكَ‏.‏ فَقَالَ تَأْتِينِي عَلَى ذَلِكَ بِالْبَيِّنَةِ‏.‏ فَانْطَلَقَ إِلَى مَجْلِسِ الأَنْصَارِ، فَسَأَلَهُمْ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا لاَ يَشْهَدُ لَكَ عَلَى هَذَا إِلاَّ أَصْغَرُنَا أَبُو سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيُّ‏.‏ فَذَهَبَ بِأَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ أَخَفِيَ عَلَىَّ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ  أَلْهَانِي الصَّفْقُ بِالأَسْوَاقِ‏.‏ يَعْنِي الْخُرُوجَ إِلَى تِجَارَةٍ‏.

‘Ubaid bin Umair reported:

 Abu Musa asked Umar to admit him but he was not admitted as Umar was busy, so Abu Musa went back. When Umar finished his job he said, “Didn’t I hear the voice of Abdullaah bin Qais? Let him come in.”

Umar was told that he had left. So, he sent for him and on his arrival, he [Abu Musa] said, “We were ordered to do so [i.e. to leave if not admitted after asking permission thrice].

Umar told him, “Bring witness in proof of your statement.”

Abu Musa went to the Ansar’s meeting places and asked them. They said, “None amongst us will give this witness except the youngest of us, Abu Sa’ed al-Khudri. Abu Musa then took Abu Sa’ed al-Khudri and Umar said, surprisingly, “Has this order of Allah’s Messenger been hidden from me?” (Then he added), “I used to be busy trading in markets.”

[Also recorded by Malik, Ahmad, Muslim, and Abu Dawud]

Abu Dawud transmits:

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ غَيْرِ، وَاحِدٍ، مِنْ عُلَمَائِهِمْ فِي هَذَا فَقَالَ عُمَرُ لأَبِي مُوسَى أَمَا إِنِّي لَمْ أَتَّهِمْكَ وَلَكِنْ خَشِيتُ أَنْ يَتَقَوَّلَ النَّاسُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ

Umar said to Abd Musa: I do not blame you, but I am afraid that the people may talk carelessly about Allaah’s Messenger.

These narrations clearly show Umar did not accept Abu Musa’s testimony just because he said it was from the Prophet despite being a well-known Sahaabi and a reliable person.

Narration of Ibn Shaqiq [a Taabi’]

Wording from Muslim:

وَحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو الرَّبِيعِ الزَّهْرَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنِ الزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ الْخِرِّيتِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ شَقِيقٍ، قَالَ خَطَبَنَا ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ يَوْمًا بَعْدَ الْعَصْرِ حَتَّى غَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ وَبَدَتِ النُّجُومُ وَجَعَلَ النَّاسُ يَقُولُونَ الصَّلاَةَ الصَّلاَةَ – قَالَ – فَجَاءَهُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي تَمِيمٍ لاَ يَفْتُرُ وَلاَ يَنْثَنِي الصَّلاَةَ الصَّلاَةَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ أَتُعَلِّمُنِي بِالسُّنَّةِ لاَ أُمَّ لَكَ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ جَمَعَ بَيْنَ الظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَالْعِشَاءِ ‏.‏ قَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ شَقِيقٍ فَحَاكَ فِي صَدْرِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَىْءٌ فَأَتَيْتُ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ فَسَأَلْتُهُ فَصَدَّقَ مَقَالَتَهُ

Abdullaah ibn Shaqiq reported:

Ibn Abbas one day addressed us in the afternoon till the sun disappeared and the stars appeared, and the people began to say: Prayer, prayer.
A person from Banu Tamim came there. He neither slackened nor turned away, but (continued crying): Prayer, prayer.
Ibn Abbas said: May you be deprived of your mother, do you teach me Sunnah?  And then he said: I saw Allaah’s Messenger combining the noon and afternoon prayers and the sunset and ‘Isha’ prayers.
Abdullaah ibn Shaqiq said: Some doubt was created in my mind about it. So I came to Abu Hurayra and asked him and he testified his assertion.
Abdullaah ibn Shaqiq al-Uqayli was from the students of the companions and learned directly from them.  Even he wanted to verify a report when it caused him some doubts, despite directly hearing it from Ibn Abbas.
So from these narrations, we learn several things:
  • It is allowed to doubt a Sahaabis words even if he is trustworthy
  • It is allowed to not accept his saying until proof has been brought to support him
  • No one is obligated to accepting a hadeeth that was reported by a single Sahaabi – this supports those who reject ahad or khabar wahid
  • There cannot be any Hukm derived from a Sahaabis saying unless it is backed by revelation, which makes the Sahaabi irrelevant anyways since revelation is required

Hence we are seeing only a few examples that show us not even the holy Prophet Muhammad Rasolullaah, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, and Umar ibn al-Khattab blindly accepted a saying of a Sahaabi as proof just because he said so.  They always verified even if it was said by a trustworthy person.  Also, these reports are helpful in refuting the innovation of people who use the Sahaabah as evidence, even though they may have gone against the Shari’ah of Allaah aza wajal.